USA
Татьяна

Татьяна

The BBC presented the television documentary Blue Planet II (Blue planet II), which showed both the breathtaking beauty of the Northern seas and the global threats they face.

Now global attention is focused on the oceans of our planet. The shock of some of the world's most isolated and untouched environments choking on pollution, particularly plastic, highlighted the need for global transformative action.

The world economic conference "ocean Action Agenda" is one of the practical examples of high-level global cooperation. In order for this initiative to maximize its potential, special attention should be paid to the Arctic marine environment.

While our planet has five oceans - the Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic and southern (Antarctic) - it is the Arctic ocean that is most vulnerable to climate change. In fact, these changes are happening before our eyes; we have already lost more than half of the Arctic summer sea ice.

There are four reasons why the Arctic ocean is different from other oceans and is critical to the survival of our planet.

First, while this relatively small (by ocean standards) marine environment accounts for only 1% of the world's oceans and only 3% of the world's oceans, its impact on the global climate system is disproportionately large.

Second, although small in area, it receives more than 10% of the world's river flow, and 20 of the 100 longest rivers in the world flow into it.

Third, the Arctic marine domain occupies about a third of the world's coastline.

And fourthly, the Arctic ocean contains a quarter of the world's continental shelf, which is of great social and environmental importance.

In all respects, the small Arctic ocean is kept in the top on the world stage.

It is different from other oceans and is a major factor in the global ocean pipeline. For example, the Gulf stream and the North Atlantic current are strictly regulated by the processes taking place in the Arctic. The Arctic ocean is far away to many of us, but its influence is felt everywhere.

The processes taking place in the Arctic play a vital role in connecting the Pacific and the Atlantic. The legendary Northwest passage is not just a destination for explorers and commercial ships; the Arctic is an Oceanographic chain that links and influences other marine regions and the global climate system.

Changes in global temperature have had a highly visible impact on the Arctic ocean. In the last two decades alone, summer sea ice coverage in the Arctic ocean has decreased by about seven million square kilometres to just over 3 million square kilometres. This loss represents almost the total area of all countries in the world.

Ocean waters are becoming more acidic, and oxygen concentrations have fallen by almost 8% in the last 50 years alone.


 

Source: https://vistanews.ru/redaktor/284612

The US has announced its intention to send warships to the Arctic. Member Of the expert Council of the military-industrial complex Viktor Murakhovsky radio Sputnik noted that without the support of the Russian US Navy will have to act at your own risk.

The us Navy plans to place patrol aircraft on the Aleutian Islands to monitor Russia's activities in the Arctic, the US Navy reported. Why do Americans need it, explained on radio Sputnik political scientist Eugene Ben.

The head of the US Navy Richard Spencer said that Washington in the summer will send to the Arctic warships to test their work in the high latitudes, according to USNI News.

In October 2018, Harry Truman became the first American aircraft carrier to cross the Arctic circle in 27 years. His campaign was part of a NATO exercise in Norway called Trident Juncture. The Alliance openly stated that the main goal is to check the combat capability of troops in a cold climate and training the transfer of large units.

As the newspaper notes, during the exercises "Harry Truman" did not experience any difficulties, but the escort ships did not show themselves in the best way.

According to Spencer, the last class of American ships equipped with steam systems to remove ice, were cruisers "Ticonderoga". More modern do not have this option.

Spencer urged to strengthen the requirements of the NATO joint command to operations in the Arctic.

The head of the US Navy also sarcastic about Russian activity in the region. The Kremlin has repeatedly stressed that the activities of Russian ships are carried out for research purposes and for rescue operations. "I think we should look for research and rescue operations there, too," Spencer said.

After he explained that it was an ironic comment and the real goal of the United States – to ensure freedom of navigation.

Member of the Expert Council of the Board of the Military-industrial Commission, military expert Viktor Murakhovsky radio Sputnik commented on the statement of the head of the US Navy.

"They (USA-ed.) have a program of action to ensure freedom of navigation. Basically, they swim in the southern seas, for example, pass the Taiwan Strait, near the bulk Islands, which are made in the South China sea... but now they decided to go by the Northern sea route, or rather not by the Northern sea Route, which partially passes in the territorial waters of the Russian Federation, and approximately parallel route, to check how much it is available for American ships. Well, we can say – the flag in their hands. I am not even sure that they will send a warship there, rather, some kind of icebreaker vessel, " said Victor Murakhovsky.

He noted that the Americans would be wise in this case to seek support from Russia.

"We have always offered not to risk foreign ships, including the military, but to pass the Northern sea route under our pilotage escort and, if necessary, accompanied by our icebreakers. Russia has the largest icebreaker fleet and the largest experience of passing the Northern sea Route. So, of course, we will not build barriers for the Americans, they have the right to swim in international waters. But if they do not turn to us for help and support, they will go at their own risk. The Arctic is a harsh business, anything can happen there, " the expert said.In the summer of 2018, the Russian defense Minister Sergei Shoigu warned about the threat of conflicts in the Arctic. German media later wrote that US actions to " ensure freedom of Maritime navigation "will be conducted in the areas claimed by Russia, and may lead to a repetition of the"Kerch incident".



Source: https://ria.ru/20190111/1549243721.html

The Arctic will become a priority for the Northern fleet in the coming year. This was stated by the commander of the Northern fleet Admiral Nikolai Evmenov when setting tasks to subordinates.

"The Northern fleet has accumulated vast experience in the Arctic – the use of underwater forces in the Arctic basin, and the activities of surface forces to ensure security in the areas of the main Arctic transport highway of Russia — the Northern sea route, as well as in the field of rescue operations and environmental safety in the Arctic zone", — said Admiral Nikolai Evmenov.

This year, the Northern fleet plans to carry out a number of Arctic campaigns of the ships ' detachments, as well as conduct various tactical exercises involving units located on the Arctic Islands. In addition, in the Arctic zone planned to conduct rescue exercises, as well as to ensure the safety of coastal and island territories of Russia, — the press service of the Northern fleet.

Along with the development of the Arctic, the Northern fleet will continue to perform tasks in other areas of the world ocean.



Source: https://sever-press.ru/2019/01/09/arktika-v-prioritete-severnyj-flot-opredelil-predstojashhie-na-god-zadachi/

We offer you an essay of candidate of political Sciences, associate Professor of international studies Of the Institute of foreign Philology and regional studies of NEFU. M. K. Ammosov, N. S. Canada Division of the Institute of USA and Canada studies Maximova Dariani Dmitrievna. Essay was specially written for the Round table "the World in 2035: a view of youth", which was organized by IMEMO is the name of Yevgeny Primakov Russian Academy of Sciences, Centre of foreign policy cooperation name of Yevgeny Primakov and the Fund of support of public diplomacy name A. M. Gorchakov. First of all, this text is devoted to forecasting the development of international relations in the Arctic region in the coming decades.

The British media spoke about the prospects of Russia's extraction of natural resources of the Arctic. However, the leading Western countries can also claim their share of the Arctic pie. 

The West claims to their share of the natural resources of the Arctic — the British media

The Independent noted that climate change and the melting of polar ice make the development of the Arctic more accessible, which can subsequently lead to a serious struggle between the West and Russia.

As noted in the article, Russia has made an important step in the development of the Arctic territories, since there are a large number of natural resources in this area, but in the future it may face military clashes with competing countries that are determined to increase their trade and economic influence on the territory.

It should be noted that the Northern sea route of Russia will also reduce the time of delivery of important goods from Russia and China to Europe. The British media expressed the opinion that the climate will play into the hands of Russia, as there is a possibility of changes in weather conditions in the direction of warming.

"Their ships are getting closer": the Independent warned about the struggle for the Arctic between Russia and the West

The ice cover of the Arctic will melt rapidly, which will give Russia the opportunity to extract energy resources much faster than its Western competitors. As noted by the commander of the Netherlands marine corps, General Jeff mcmutry, the Russian Navy shows " increasing interest "in the Arctic region, and their ships"are getting closer".

Journalists called on the British side to put forward their claims to the share of Arctic land. Britain, in their opinion, has some influence on those powers that can oppose a direct competitor, that is, Russia. As the main weapon of the UK media called the fleet, which can compete with the Russian side in the race for Northern wealth. 


 

Source: https://nation-news.ru/423994-brat-krisa-kelmi-zayavil-chto-kategoricheski-protiv-nepublichnykh-pokhoron-pevca

Page 5 of 7